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International Organization - The United Nations Organization and Others [ Social Science , NCERT- CLASS X ]


International  Organization - The United Nations Organization and Others 

Textual short answer questions :Very short answer questions :1.       Why was the UNO  formed ?

Ans  : The UNO was formed to ensure word peace and to stop another world war .

2.       Mention two objectives of the UNO are :

(i)                  To maintain international  peace and security.
(ii)                To build friendly relations  among all  countries of the world on the basis of equal rights and  self determination.

3.       Give the name of the UN organs.

Ans :  The six organs of the UNO are :
(i)                  General Assembly
(ii)                Security council
(iii)               Economic and social council
(iv)              Trusteeship  council
(v)                International  court  of justice (ICJ)
(vi)              Secretariat

4.       Give  the  name  of   the  two  agencies related  to the  UNO.

Ans :  The  two  agencies related  to the  UNO  are :
(i)                  International   Labour  Organization (ILO)
(ii)                World  Health  Organisation (WHO)

5.         Give  the  name  of  two  treaties  which  were  signed  on disarmament.

Ans :  Two  treaties  which  were  signed  on disarmament  are :
(i)                  Partial   Nuclear  Test Ban  Treaty (1963)
(ii)                Nuclear   Non   Proliferation  treaty  (1963

6.        What   is  meant   by  human rights ?

Ans :   The   condition  which  are   essential  for  each  Individual   of   the  world  to  living  a  dignified   life  are  termed  as  Human  Rights.

Long   answer  questions :1.       Discuss  the  aims of  the  UNO  for  which  it  came  into  existence  and  also   discuss  its  principles.

Ans :   The  aims  / objectives  of  the  UNO  are :
(i)                  To  maintain  international   peace  and  security.
(ii)                To   build   friendly   relations  among  all  countries  of  the  world  on  the  basis   of  equal  rights and  self  determination.
(iii)               To   resolve  existing economic, social  and   cultural  problems  and  disputed  issues  on  the  basis of  international  cooperation  so  that  each  person can  enjoy  human  rights and  fundamental  rights.
(iv)              To  act  as  a  centre  of  excellence  to  build  good  and  cordial relations  with   various  countries.
The  principles of  the  UNO   are :
(i)                  Formed   on  the   principle of  equal  sovereignty  of  all  member countries.
(ii)                All  the  member  states  should    execute  their  duties  and  responsibilities by  obeying  the  rules as  mentioned  in  the  UN  charter.
(iii)               All  the   member states   should  resolve  their   disputes in  a  peaceful   manner  without  affecting   international  peace,  security  and  justice.
(iv)              All  the  member  states  should  avoid  threat  or  use of   force  against  any  state  so  as  to  maintain   cordial  international    relations.
(v)                All   the  member   states  should   help  and  extend  support  to  the  UNO  whenever  required  and  should  not  help  a  particular state  which   is  facing   UNO’s  punitive  action.

2.        Write  a  note  on  the  security  council  of  the  UNO.

Ans :  The  Security  Council   is  the  most  important  organ  of   the  UNO .at  the  time  of  UNO’s  formation, it had  five  permanent  member state  and  six  temporary  member states.  The  permanent  member
State   are  USA,  Great  Britain, France , Russia  and  China.  The  number  of  temporary  member  states  was  increased from  six  to  ten  by  amending  the  23rd  article  of  the  UN  Charter  in  1963.  The  temporary   
Members   are  elected  by  the  general  assembly. Each  permanent   member   state  has  a  right  to  exercise  veto power.   Altogether, at  least  nine members, including  five  permanent member, must  agree  in  order  to  take  a  decision  on  an  important  matter .

3.       Discuss  the  steps  taken  by  the  UNO  on world  peace.

Ans :   The  steps  taken  by the  UNO  on  world  peace are  :
(i)                  Disarmament   Commission  :   The  UNO had established  the  Disarmament  Commission  in  January  1952 to  remove  war  like  situations  among  the  world  nations.
(ii)                Treaties : The  UNO  has  accorded  treaties   like  the  partial   Nuclear  Non – proliferation  Treaty  (1968),  the   seabed  control  treaty  (1972),Salt-I  (1972),  Salt-II (1979),  Nuclear  Arms  Control  Treaty (1993),  the  START-I (Strategic Arms  Reduction Treaty  1991)  and  START-I(1993)  and  the  Comprehensive  Test  Ban Treaty (CTBT) (1996).
(iii)               Preventive Diplomacy  :    The  UNO  adopted  the  preventive diplomacy in  June  2007  to  resolve  disputes  through  discussion  and promote  world  peace.

4.         Write  a note  regarding  National   Human  Rights  Commission  in India .

              Ans :  The  National  Human  Rights  Commission  was  set up  on 28 September  1993  in  India through  an ordinance    by  the president  of  India .  On 8 January  1994 , the  Human  Rights  protection Act
                          1993 ,  came  into  force.  State Human  Rights  Commissions  have  also  been  set up  in  the  provinces.
         The  members  of the  commission should  posses  the  following  qualifications:
(i)                   The   chairman  of the   commission  should  be  a  retired  chief   justice  of  the  supreme  court  .
(ii)                One  member  should  be  a serving  or be   a  retired  judge  of the  supreme  court.
(iii)               One  member  should  be a serving  or be a retired  chief  justice  of  any  High  Court.
(iv)              Two  members  are  those  who  have knowledge  and  experience on  human  right  activities  as  activists.
(v)                The  respective  chairman  of  the  National  Minority Commission ,  Scheduled   Caste  and  Scheduled  Tribes  National    Women’s  Commission    should be  the  members  of  the  commission.
The  member  of the  commission  are  appointed  for  a term  of   five  year  by  the  president  of India

5.        Discuss   the  steps  taken by  the  UNO regarding  Human  Rights .

Ans :  The  UNO  emphasized  on  human rights  along  with  cooperation   and  peaceful  environment among  the  member  nations .  the  Human  Rights  Declaration   was   adopted  by  the  General  Assembly  of  the  UNO  on 10 December 1948  with  the  support  of  48  member  states  to   secure  human  rights  for  each  person  to  lead  a dignified  human  life .The  objectives  of  Human  Rights  Declaration   are :
(I)                 To  secure rights of  the  individuals   that  have  been  incorporated  in the  declaration .
(II)               To   give   due  recognition  to  the  above  mentioned  rights by  the  member  states .

             Thus, UNO has taken  positive steps to secure dignified  human  life  for each individual  and  has  made clear   that  no  states  can  secure international  peace  and  security  by  depriving  its  citizens  of  their          human  rights.10  December   is  observed   as   International   Human  Rights   Day.       

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