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Indian Democracy [ Social Science , NCERT Class X ]


Indian democracy

Very short answer  questions :
1.       Which  political  party  won  the  election held in  1945  in England ?
Ans :  The  labour party.
2.        When  did the  “Cabinet Mission”  come  to  India ‘?
Ans : March 1946
3.       Who was the  first chairman  of  the constitutent assembly ?
Ans :  Dr. Sacchindananda  Sinha
4.        Who  was  the president  of  the  drafting  committee  of  Indian constitution ?
Ans : The  chairman  was Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.(there was  no president of the drafting  committee of  Indian  constitution).
5.       In which  constitutional  amendments, the words “Socialist” and “Secular”  were incorporated in the “preamble” ?
Ans :  In  the 42nd  constitutional  amendment.
6.       From which  Latin  word has been  the  English word  “Federation”  derived ?
Ans:   “Foedus”
7.       Which  country  is regarded  as  the  “Homeland” of federation ?
Ans : United  states  of America ( USA).
8.       Is  there dual citizenship  system  in India ?
Ans : No
9.       From  which country 's  constitution has  been  the concept of India ‘s parliamentary  democracy followed ?
Ans: From  the  constitution of England.
Short  answer  questions.
1.        Why  did the British government  send  the cabinet mission to India  ?
Ans :  The British government sent the cabinet mission to India to:
(i)                  From  a congenial  environment;
(ii)                Make   necessary arrangements  for framing  a new constitution for India.   
2.       According  to  which  Act, India’s administration  was  governed  between  15 August, 1947 to 26 January, 1950  and  who enacted this Act ?
Ans :  India’s  administration was  governed  according to the provisions of the Govt. Of India Act, 1935  between  15 August  1947 to 26 January 1950.
             The govt. Of India Act was enacted  by the parliament of England.
3.        Why have  the  words “we the people  of India” been  incorporated  in the preamble ?
Ans :  The  words “we the  people of  India” have  been  incorporated  in the  preamble to  emphasize the  fact  that the actual  authority  of the  Indian  constitution  is  in  the  hands of  the  Indian  people  and  belongs  solely  to  them,  and  they  are  the  major force  behind  the  making of  the  Indian  constitution.
4.       What  is  meant  by  the  term sovereign ?
Ans :  The  term  ‘sovereign’  means  that  the  people  have  supreme  and  absolute  right  to  make  decisions in internal  as  well  as  external  matters.
5.        According  to  which  constitutional  amendment  the  two  words “Socialist”  and “Secular” have  been  incorporated ,  in  the  Preamble and in which year ?
Ans :  According  to  the  42nd  constitutional  amendment,  the  two  words  “Socialist”  and   “Secular”  have  been  incorporated  in  the preamble .  This  amendment was made on  18th December 1976  .
6.       What  is  meant  by  “Quasi- federal  state”  ?
Ans :  A  state  with  the system  of  governance  in which  features of  both the federal  and  unitary  form  of government  are  incorporated  is known  as  “Quasi-federal  state”
7.        Which  Indian  Act  had  introduced  limited  parliamentary  democracy  in  pre-independence period.
Ans  :  The  govt. Of  India  Act,1935  had introduced  limited  parliamentary  democracy  in  pre-independence period.
Long answer  questions :
1.        Discuss  how  the  ideals  of the  Indian  constitution have  been  manifested  in  its  preamble.
Ans :  Preamble  is  the  preface  to  the  constitution  of  India  that  highlights  the  aims,  objectives , principles , ideas  and  philosophy  introduced  or sought  to  acquire  by  means  of law. Its  is  also  regarded  as  the  soul,  conscience ,  threshold  and  key  of the  Indian   constitution.  It  reflects   the  inner  spirit  of  the  constitution. Each  word in  the  preamble  bears  ideals ,  philosophy  and  objectives  of  constitution. The  very  beginning  words  of the  preamble  “we the  people  of  India”  reflects   the  ideal  that  the  actual  authority  of  the  constitution  are  the  citizens  of  India  themselves , and  they  are the  primary force  behind  framing   of  the  constitution .
The preamble  also  says  that  India  will  be  a  sovereign,  socialist ,secular,  democratic  and republic  nation. Each  of  these  words  also reflect  the  ideals  of  the  constitution.  Further the  preamble  mentions  that  justice ,  liberty,  equality  and  fraternity  will  be  established  in  India.  These  words  too  further  emphasize  the  ideals  and  objectives  of  the   constitution.  Thus  the  ideals  of    the   Indian  constitution   have  been  manifested  in  each  and  every  word  of  the   preamble.
2.   Write in details about what is meant by  sovereign , socialist, secular, democratic and republic.

Ans : The meaning of the following terms is described as:     (i)Sovereign : India is a sovereign state. She is free  from any external power or rule  all the decisions pertaining to  internal as well as external matters  of  the state                    can  be independently  taken by her people.
     (ii)Socialist : India is a socialist state the term was included in the preamble by the 42nd constitutional amendment Act of 1976. It tells that wealth and resources  should be       Equally shared among the countrymen. The  government should enact  laws to avoid getting resources  concentrated  in the hands of a few people. There  should not
       Be inequality  among the people in accordance to their income, status and standard of living.     (iii)Secular : India is a secular state. The Term was included in the preamble by the 42nd constitutional amendment Act of 1976.It states that India has no state religion. All       Citizens have the right to accept, practice and spread any religion of their choice.(iii)    Democratic : India is a democratic state. As a democratic country, every citizen has the right to vote and can take part in the election process.
(V)  Republic : India is a republic. When the head of the state is elected and the post is not hereditary, it is kwon as a republic. The elected representatives elect the president of India for a period of for five year.

    3. Discuss the objective resolutions put forward by Pandit Nehru in relation to the Indian constitution.

      Ans : The objective resolutions put forward by Pandit Nehru in relation to the Indian constitution are :(i)          The constitution assembly would declare India as an independent sovereign republic ( the term ‘Independent’ was removed subsequently ).
(ii)          To constitute a union of states with the British-ruled Indian territory and the erstwhile princely kingdoms ready to join the Indian territory.
(iii)         To duly recognize social, economic and political justice, equality, religious liberty freedom of expressing thought and opinion of the Indian people.
(iv)         To frame measures for protecting the interests of the scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, backward classes and the minority people of India.
(v)         To emphasize on safeguarding the freedom, sovereignty  and integrity of India
(vi)         To extend full cooperation towards international relations, world peace and welfare of the people.
(vii)        To ensure that the source of all powers would be the people of India.
(viii)        To ensure the status of the constituent provinces through self governance with residuary powers for the indigenous princely states willing to join the India union.

4.    Discuss the characteristics of the Indian federal system.

Ans : the characteristics of the Indian federal system are :
(i)          The Indian federal system is a “quasi-federal”  system. It consists of feature of both the federal and unitary forms of government.
(ii)          There is only one constitution for the whole Indian federation and no separate constitution for each constituent state of India.
(iii)         The constituent state of the Indian union have no right to secede from the union.
(iv)         Central government is more powerful than the state governments as all the important powers have been vested in the central government by the constitution.
(v)         The governor of a state acts as a representative  of the central government. His appointment also does not corroborate the federal character of India.
(vi)         Single citizenship has been granted in India to ensure sovereignty and integrity of the country.
(vii)        India federation is referred to as the ‘cooperative federation’ as the Indian federal system is dependent on the centre state relationship.

5.Discuss the important characteristics of the parliamentary form of government in India.

   Ans : The important characteristics of the parliamentary form of government in India :
(i)          The parliament of India is formed with two houses, viz the house of people (Lok Sabha) and the council of states (Rajya Sabha)
(ii)          The president of India is an important constituent of the Indian parliament.
(iii)         The Indian parliament forms a government created by people and is responsible to the people.
(iv)         The head of state is an elected representative of the people.

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