Unit II - Speaking Skills-Monologue and Dialogue,Group Discussion, Interview and Public Speech- BA/Bsc/Bcom 1st Sem -English Communication - Under Dibrugarh University

Monologue and Dialogue

 Questions

1. What is a monologue? Mention its types.

Ans: A monologue is the act of speaking by a single person. The speaker in a monologue speaks to himself/herself with or without a listener. The word monologue is derived from the Greek words 'monos, which means 'alone' and logos, meaning 'speech The term is variously defined. In the world of theatre, cinema or television show, it is termed as a long speech or utterance by one person. For some people, it is a prolonged talk or discourse by a solitary speaker without allowing others to participate in the conversation.

TYPES OF MONOLOGUE:

Monologues are of two types: Interior Monologue and Dramatic Monologue.

2. What is a dialogue? How can you develop your dialogue skills?

Ans:  A dialogue is a verbal communication process between two individuals or a group of persons on certain issues. It is derived from the Greek words dia (through) and logos (meaning). Together the words seem to suggest a process where 'flow of meaning' takes place in the conversation between two persons or a group of persons. It is also a conversation between two people in a book, film or play.

 Tips for developing Dialogue or Conversational Skills:

 As dialogue is a two-way communication process, the first and foremost thing is to practice conversation and gain fluency in the speaking language.This is possible by engaging oneself with friends who have good verbal communication skills.

   To develop conversational skills, it is very important to be a good listener too. Listening helps in understanding the view points of others, and to prepare answers accordingly.

 If the speaker wants to develop English speaking skills, he/she must form a habit of keeping himself/herself connected with the language. Watching English movies or television news, listening to radio programmes on a regular basis, help in familiarising with the language.

 Conversation sessions with friends should be recorded. When the speaker listens to the recording, it helps in gaining insights on the miscommunication and in evaluating errors in pronunciation.

Saying one's thoughts out loud can be an effective way to practice spoken English.

3. State the differences between a monologue and dialogue.

Ans:  Difference between Monologue and Dialogue: 

. (i) The first and foremost difference between a monologue and a dialogue is that the former is a speech made by a speaker to express his/her thoughts and feelings to others who are silent. Dialogue is also a conversation but between two or more interactive persons.

(ii) Monologue is one-way communication process where only the speaker is active. Dialogue is a two-way communication as both sides participate in the process.

(iii) Monologue is generally a speech, whereas dialogue is a conversation. Monologue has a single speaker. But in a dialogue there are two or multiple speakers.

(iv) A monologue expresses only personal thoughts and feelings of the speaker. A dialogue is a process where all parties get an opportunity to discuss or negotiate in order to come to an understanding.

4. Complete the following dialogue between a lady and a grocery salesman. Lady: Hello, Binoy!

Salesman: Hey, Mrs. Gogoi. How are you?

Lady: Very well, Binoy. I want some potatoes and a can of peas. What other seasonal vegetables do you have?

Salesman: ...

Lady:....

Salesman:...

Lady:

Salesman:

Lady:.....

Salesman

Lady

Ans: 

Lady: Hello, Binoy!

Salesman: Hey, Mrs. Gogoi. How are you?

Lady: Very well, Binoy. I want some potatoes and a can of peas. What other seasonal vegetables do you have?

Salesman: Yes, we have lots of stocks , here look tomatoes , brinjal , cabbage etc. 

Lady: Okay , what is the price ? 

Salesman: You may buy tomatoes for Rs.20 per kg and for potatoes , a can of peas , you will have to pay Rs30 and Rs.10 per kg respectively. 

Lady: Okay , give me 2kg of tomato , 1kg of potato and 1 kg of peas. 

Salesman: Okay, madam. Madam ! here  take and give  Rs.80

Lady: Okay and thank you so much. 

Salesman: Okay mam, is there anything to buy from our shop ? 

Lady : Nothing , see you again. 

5. Rewrite the following as a dramatic scene with dialogues and stage directions:

Jokhu, who'd been sick for several days, held back his thirst for a little while. Then he said, 'I'm so thirsty I can't stand it. Bring me the

water, I'll hold my nose and drink a little.'

Gangi did not give it to him. His sickness would get worse from drinking bad water that much she knew. But she didn't know that by

boiling the water it would be made safe. She said, 'How can you drink it?

Who knows what kind of beast has died in it! I'll go and get you some water from the well.'

Surprised, Jokhu stared at her. 'Where can you get more water?'

'The Thakur and the shopkeeper both have wells. Won't they let me fill just one lota!"

'You'll come back with your arms and legs broken, that's all. You'd

better just sit down and keep quiet. The Brahman will give a curse, the

Thakur will beat you with a stick, and that money-lending shopkeeper

takes five for every one he gives. Do you think people like that are going

to let you draw water from their wells?'

Harsh truth was in these words and Gangi could not deny it. But she wouldn't let him drink that stinking water.

(Excerpt from Premchand's Thakur's Well)

6. Construct a dialogue using at least 6 words from the options given below:

Red, Clouds, Painting, Cake, Cricket, Bicycle, Sunset, Cotton candy,

Dollhouse, Tulips.


English Communication under Dibrugarh University



Group Discussion


Questions:

 1. What is a Group Discussion? How is it conducted?

Ans: A group discussion, or what is popularly known as GD, is an interview tool used by employers to assess the personality traits of an individual. Apart from the evaluation of a candidate's personality traits, his/her decision making abilities, problem solving skills and adaptability to work in a team environment are put to test in a GD. In this technique a group of 5-15 candidates are given a common topic for discussion under the observation of a panel of experts. The panellists record the observations and prepare an analytical report on the performance of each candidate. 

Conducting a Group Discussion:

A group discussion is conducted in the following manner:

Step 1: The group of selected candidates are asked to sit in a semi-circular or circular seating arrangement.

Step 2: A group of subject experts called panellists oversee the entire process and mark individual scores in scoring sheets.

Step 3: A single topic is given for discussion by the panellists.

Step 4: Candidates are generally given 5-15 minutes to develop strategies and points of view.

Step 5: Each candidate is allotted a fixed period of time to discuss the topic and exchange the ideas with other candidates.

Step 6: Panellists stop the discussion after all the candidates have participated in the discussion.

2. Why is it important to hold a Group Discussion before selecting a candidate for a job?

Ans: Importance of Group Discussions: 

Sometimes there is a mismatch between subject knowledge and its application in the field of work. A person with high academic credentials may not always be the fit person to work in a group environment. Employers generally try to recruit a person who is academically brilliant and also possesses the skills to be a team player. GD plays an important role in the selection procedure of a candidate who has the right balance. Its importance lies in the following:

i) When candidates express their views on a given topic, the panellists in the GD try to gauge the confidence level of each participant.

ii) A team member not only asserts his/her point of view but also listens to what others say. A GD helps in focusing on the candidate having the attitude to swim along with other team members.

iii) GD enables employers to detect candidates who can provide leadership to a team of workers for completing a task.

iv) A person having clarity of thought and expression can easily connect with others. GD panellists look for a candidate with excellent communication skills.

v) A group discussion comes in handy to assess certain skills that an interview cannot evaluate.

3. What techniques should an interviewee adopt while preparing for a Group Discussion?

Ans:  Preparing for a Group Discussion: 

 As the competition is stiff, it is necessary for candidates to have a thorough preparation before appearing in a group discussion. Preparation may include the following:

(i) Group discussion is an oral process. To make a forceful presentation one must be fluent in the English language. A good stock of words aids in creating an impact in the discussion.

(ii) A GD topic may be anything under the sky. Knowledge on diverse areas of human learning is essential for participation in a group discussion. Knowledge can be gained by making reading a habitual process.

(iii) It is essential to show leadership skills in group discussions. To be a leader it is necessary to develop such skills like critical thinking, creating a vision and communicating a vision.

(iv) For an effective presentation there is also much space for exploring non- verbal forms of communication. Body language should be used appropriately as it tells much about one's personality.

(v) Quality of listening should be developed for appearing in group discussions. Listening to other speakers with attention gives the idea that the listener admits and respects different points of view.

(vi) Mention the do's and don'ts for creating an impact in a Group Discussion.



Interview


Questions:

1. What do you mean by an interview? What are the objectives of holding an interview?

Ans: The word interview is derived from the French word, entrevue, meaning to "see each other." In simple terms, it means an interface meeting between two persons or a group of persons involving a session of questions and answers.

The person(s) responsible for putting forth the questions is/are called interviewer(s). On the other hand, the person answering the questions is called an interviewee. Ideally it is an exercise to bring out maximum amount of information from the person being interviewed. It strives to evaluate the person's credentials, family background, work experience and personality traits like manners, communication and interpersonal skills.

Objectives of an Interview:

 An interview is an appropriate technique for an organisation to know where it stands. It also helps in eliciting information on the qualities of the people involved in it. Generally it serves the following objectives:

(i) Sometimes information received through applications, tests and group discussions are not sufficient in knowing a person. So interviews assist in knowing a person better.

 (ii) Interviews help in validating the accuracy of information already submitted by a candidate at the time of applying.

 (iii) It has mutual benefits for the interviewers and the interviewees. Both come to know each other.

 (iv) Interviews come as handy in measuring the ability of a person to perform the tasks with minimal supervision.

 (v) Valuable insights on a person's ability to interact, response to issues, to think critically, and capacity to work in a group can be gained from an interview.

2. Discuss at least five types of interview.

Ans: 5 Types of Interviews: 

i) Evaluative Interviews: An evaluative interview is one that tries to examine the interviewee's knowledge, exposure to work, attitude, skills etc. Generally questions on situational, knowledgeable and behavioural aspects are asked in an evaluative interview. The main purpose of such an interview is to have a proper assessment of the strengths and limitations of the person interviewed.

ii) Persuasive Interviews: A persuasive interview is a face-to-face meeting between interviewers and interviewees to evaluate whether the latter possesses persuasive skills to promote the interests of the former. Here the interviewers ask questions to find out whether the interviewee would be able to achieve realistic targets or solve problems encountered in the process of achieving the goals.

iii) Structured Interviews: In structured interviews the interviewers ask a group of pre-planned questions. The questions are generally arranged in a particular sequence and based on the requirements of the interviewers. All the candidates are required to answer the same set of questions. Its main aim is to eliminate the subjective element and biasness that may creep in the form of gender, physical attractiveness, race etc. Performance of the candidates is evaluated through a rating system using scorecards.

iv) Unstructured Interviews: Unlike structured interviews, interviewees are not supposed to respond to a pre-fixed pattern of questions in an unstructured interview. In this type of interview, questions are itself based on the responses of the candidates or a variety of topics. But it is less reliable and precise because one cannot rule out the pull of the subjective element influencing the judgement of the interviewers.

v) Promotional Interviews: Organisations hold promotional interviews when some of its members become eligible to progress to higher responsibilities. Here, the conversation generally focuses on evaluating the professional competency of the candidate to assume the responsibilities that come with the promotion. Part of the interview is also meant to evaluate whether the person is mentally fit to cope with the challenges of a new assignment.

3. Mention some of the techniques of facing an interview.

Ans:  Techniques of Facing an Interview: 

(i) Interview candidates should be dressed in formal attire and not appearin casual clothing. A pleasing appearance speaks volume on the personality of the interviewee.

(ii) An important step towards a successful interview lies in having a thorough knowledge of the organisation in which he/she is appearing as an interviewee.

(iii) Interviewees should prepare well ahead of the interview. Practice sessions with intelligent friends make the preparation more fruitful.

(iv) Information provided in the resume or curriculum vitae is to be remembered in detail. One must be able to confidently elaborate every point mentioned there.

(v) Interviewers like to have confident people in their organisation. Having confidence in one's abilities helps in creating a favourable impression in an interview.

(vi) As an interview is a question-answer process, it is necessary for the interviewees to anticipate certain questions and  prepare the response accordingly.

(vii) Persons appearing in an interview must have a positive body language. They should maintain a direct eye-to-eye contact with the interviewer, sit in a comfortable posture and wear a smiling expression.

(viii) Interview bound candidate should be punctual. They must arrive at least half an hour before the interview starts.

(ix) Interaction with interviewers should take place in a polite manner. Fighting or arguing with interviewers will not help in scoring points.

(x) Honesty should be the best policy during interview sessions. Candidates should never lie in an interview. It is better to say "sorry" than to be identified as a liar.

(xi) Making negative statements or comments against past employers should be strictly avoided. During online video-conferencing interviewees must select a location which is well lighted. It would enable interviewers to have a better vision. It is advisable to check in advance that the microphone and video chat are in working condition.

(xii) For telephonic interviews, the place selected should be noise free and have good reception of telecommunication signals.

(xiii) In group interviews candidates should be assertive and try to convey strong messages that they can work in team environment.

4. What are the habits one should adopt and avoid to be successful in an interview?

Ans:  Do's and Don'ts in an Interview: 

Success comes with a price. To be successful in an interview a candidate has to follow certain best practices and avoid bad habits:

Do's

• One should smile but do not overdo it as it may make one seem nervous.

• One should be courteous and respectful.

• One should carry all necessary documents and CV in a portfolio.

• One should dress in professional formal attire.

•One should highlight his/her analytical skills.


Don'ts

• One should not be arrogant and aggressive.

• One should not release nervous and negative energy.

• One should not indulge the interviewer in long anecdotes from his/her personal life.

•One should not lie while stating the facts in the resume or curriculum vitae.

•One should not use jargons and slangs during the interview process.

5. Select a teammate and study the profile of a company. Hold a mock interview before the class with one student acting as the interviewer and the other as the interviewee. Have the class critique the interview and make a note of comments to prepare your own do's and don'ts list. 


Public Speech


 Questions

1. What is public speaking?

Ans: Public speech or public speaking is the act, art, or process of making effective speeches to an audience which is active or live. It is intended to inform, motivate, persuade, educate or entertain the listeners in a face-to-face manner. The process enables a speaker to form connections, influence decisions and motivate change in the listeners.

2. Why is public speaking important in day to day life?

Ans: Importance of Public Speaking: 

(i) Public speaking gives the speaker an opportunity of direct connection with the audience to express why a particular idea, service or product is beneficial to them.
(ii) In public appearances, speaking without fumbling and stammering helps the speaker in building his/her self-confidence.
(iii) In order to keep the audience interested and engaged, the speaker has to think about new ideas. This leads to critical thinking.
(iv) Speaking at length on a particular topic is very challenging. It becomes easier if the speaker is familiar with the ins and outs of the topic. Researching on the area increases the knowledge base of the speaker.
(v) Effective public communication paves the way for developing leadership skills.
(vi) Good public speakers are always in demand. More and more people love to hear them speak. This gives the speaker an opportunity to enlarge his/ her social connections.
(vii) Interaction with the audience makes the speaker a good listener as well develops his/her argumentative skills for driving the point home.

3. What are the different types of public speech?

Ans: Types of Public Speeches: 

Ceremonial Speech: Speech delivered on the occasion of marriage ceremonies, funerals, birthday celebrations, official parties etc. is called a ceremonial speech.

Demonstrative Speeches: A demonstrative speech is one which is informative in nature. Through effective demonstrations, the speaker educates his/her listeners how to complete a particular process or work.

Persuasive Speech: A persuasive speech is one in which the speaker tries to convince the audience to accept their point of view. Such a speech is arranged and transmitted in a manner which compels the listeners to accept at least apart of the expressed view, if not the whole.

Informative Speech: An informative speech is one which makes the listeners enlightened about a topic which they are not aware of previously. It aims to help the audience to understand and remember the information presented before them.

Impromptu Speech: A public speech made on the spot without any prior preparation is called as an impromptu speech. Impromptu speeches may be on a wide range of topics. Speakers having interest in diverse areas qualify for such speeches.

4. What type of skills must one possess to become an effective public speaker?

Ans: Techniques for Improving Public Speaking

(i) Topic knowledge: An effective speaker is one who has a thorough knowledge about what he/she is going to speak. Research on the subject matter is of utmost importance.

(ii) Audience information: Knowing the targeted audience helps in preparing the speech. The intended speech should be at par with the level of understanding of the audience.

(iii) Story telling: To draw the attention of the audience and keep them engaged, the speaker may add stories to his/her speech. However, the stories should be relevant to the topic and the listeners should be able to relate them.

(iv) Follow professionals: Speaking is an art and only a small minority is efficient in this. By keenly observing professional speakers, one can have a fair idea about what goes into the making of an effective public speaker.

(v) Build confidence: Fear of the audience stands as a stumbling block in facing the crowd. Positive thinking and believing in one's capabilities dispel the fear for the faces in front.

(vi) Language command: Command over language is a must for becoming an effective speaker. Short sentences and easy words make the audience understand the expressed view of the speaker.

(vii) Voice control: To be a master speaker one must know the art of voice modulation. It means adjusting the pitch and volume while speaking, giving stress on key words, pause in between, and maintaining the tempo or speed of the speech.

(viii) Humour: Using humour in public speeches is almost like adding spice to our food. An appropriate dose of humour in a speech keeps the public awake, interested, connected and entertained.

(ix) Practice: Practice makes one perfect. One must rehearse before making a public speech. It helps in organising the speech and facilitates the speaker in remembering the content.

(x) Feedback: Audience feedback is an important factor in making an effective speaker. It allows the speaker to have insights on how his/her message is being received and how it is being interpreted by the audience. 

 



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